Equality NCERT Textbook With Solution PDF

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 Equality‘ PDF Quick download link is given at the bottom of this article. You can see the PDF demo, size of the PDF, page numbers, and direct download Free PDF of ‘Ncert Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 Exercise Solution’ using the download button.

Equality NCERT Textbook With Solutions Book PDF Free Download


Chapter 3: Equality

Equality is a powerful moral and political ideal that has inspired and guided human society for many centuries.

It is implicit in all faiths and religions which proclaim all human beings to be the creation of God. As a political ideal the concept of equality invokes the idea that all human beings have an equal worth regardless of their color, gender, race, or nationality.

It maintains that human beings deserve equal consideration and respect because of their
common humanity.

It is this notion of shared humanity that lies behind, for instance, the notions of universal human rights or ‘crimes against humanity.

In the modern period, the equality of all human beings has been used as a rallying slogan in the struggles against states and social institutions which uphold inequalities of rank, wealth status or privilege, among people.

In the eighteenth century, the French revolutionaries used the slogan ‘Liberty, Equality and Fraternity to revolt against the landed feudal aristocracy and the monarchy.

The demand for equality was also raised during anti-colonial liberation struggles in Asia and
Africa during the twentieth century.

It continues to be raised by struggling groups such as women or Dalits who feel marginalized in our society.

Today, equality is a widely accepted ideal that is embodied in the constitutions and laws of many countries.

Yet, it is inequality rather than equality that is most visible around us in the world as well as within our own society.

In our country, we can see slums existing side by side with luxury housing, schools with world-class facilities and airconditioned classrooms along with schools that may lack even drinking water facilities or toilets, waste of food as well as starvation.

There are glaring differences between what the law promises and what we see around us.

Read the accompanying fact sheet on global inequalities and the table on inequalities within our country as we face a paradox: almost everyone accepts the ideal of equality, yet almost everywhere we encounter inequality. We live in a complex world of unequal wealth, opportunities, work situations, and power.

Should we be concerned about these kinds of inequalities? Are they a permanent and inevitable feature of social life that reflects the differences in talent and ability of human beings as well as their different contributions towards social progress and prosperity?

Or are these inequalities a consequence of our social position and rules? These are questions that have troubled people all over the world for many years.

Language English
No. of Pages22
PDF Size0.9 MB
CategoryPolitical Science

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science Chapter 3 Equality

Question 1.
Some people argue that inequality is natural while others maintain that it is equality that is natural and the inequalities which we notice around us are created by society. Which view do you support? Give reasons.
Natural inequalities:

  • These inequalities emerge due to differences in personal traits either physical, or mental or emotional.
  • These inequalities are the result of different characteristics and abilities of inborn qualities of a man.
  • These natural differences cannot be changed also.

Social inequalities:

  • Socially produced inequalities emerge as a result of unequal opportunities, i.e. family background, educational factors, etc.
  • Social differences reflect the values of society, which may appear to be unjust.


  • Discrimination based on gender, color, race, etc. has been made by society rather than based on inborn characteristics.
  • Some natural differences have become alterable also, i.e. progress in medical sciences and technology has helped several disabled persons to work more efficiently.
  • Certain inequalities that have been existing for centuries seem justified and based on natural inequalities, i.e. women are considered weaker than men in every aspect, hence to deny them equal rights is considered justifiable.

Question 2.
There is a view that absolute economic equality is neither possible nor desirable. It is argued that the most a society can do are to try and reduce the gaps between the richest and the poorest members of society. Do you agree?
Economic equality: It refers to the availability of equal opportunities to one and all present in the society, without any discrimination:

  • Absolute economic equality of income has never existed in society. But democratic set up provides equal opportunities to at least those who are capable and possess potential with equal opportunities, inequalities may exist between individuals, but one’s position may be improved with the sincere efforts in the society.

Economic inequalities:

  • Economic inequality exists if there are differences in wealth, property, or income between different sections of society.
  • It enhances the gap between the upper, middle, poor-rich, and persons living below the poverty line.

Measurement of economic inequalities:

  • To estimate the number of people who are living below the poverty line.
  • To find out the differences between the rich and poor.

Importance of economic equality:

  • Economic equality guarantees each and everybody equal opportunities to improve one’s potential and capabilities.
  • Economic equality reduces the gap between the rich and the poor or high or middle class, etc.
  • Economic disparities can make society more violent because the reforms cannot take place in such a society.

NCERT Class 11 Political Science Textbook Chapter 3 Equality With Answer PDF Free Download

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