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Political Theory An Introduction NCERT Textbook With Solutions Book PDF Free Download
Chapter 1: Political Theory: An Introduction
Human beings are unique in two respects: they possess reason and the ability to reflect on their actions.
They also have the capacity to use language and communicate with each other. Unlike other species, they can express their innermost thoughts and desires; they can share their ideas and discuss what they consider to be good and desirable.
Political theory has its roots in these twin aspects of the human self. It analyzes certain basic questions such as how should society be organized?
Why do we need government? What is the best form of government? Does law limit our freedom? What does the state owe its citizens? What do we owe each other as citizens?
Political theory examines questions of this kind and systematically thinks about the values that inform political life – values such as freedom, equality and justice.
It explains the meanings and significance of these and other related concepts. It clarifies the existing definitions of these concepts by focusing on some major political thinkers of the past and present.
It also examines the extent to which freedom or equality are actually present in the institutions that we participate in everyday such as schools, shops, buses or trains or government offices.
At an advanced level, it looks at whether existing definitions are adequate and how existing
institutions (government, bureaucracy) and policy practices must be modified to become more democratic.
The objective of political theory is to train citizens to think rationally about political questions and assess correctly the political events of our time.
You would have noticed that people have different ideas about what politics is. Political leaders, and persons who contest elections and hold political office, may argue that it is a kind of public service.
Some others associate politics with manipulation and intrigue undertaken to pursue ambitions and satisfy wants. A few think of politics as what politicians do. If they see politicians
defecting from parties, making false promises and tal.
claims, manipulating different sections, pursuing personal or group interests ruthlessly and in worst cases stooping to crime, they link politics with ‘scams’.
So prevalent is this way of thinking that when we see people in different walks of life trying to promote their interests by any means possible, we say they are playing politics.
If we see a cricketer manipulating to stay in the team, or a fellow student trying to use his father’s position, or a colleague in office mindlessly agreeing with the boss, we say he or she is playing ‘dirty’ politics. Disillusioned by such pursuits of selfishness we despair of politics.
We say, “I am not interested in politics” or that “I am going to stay away from politics”. It is not only ordinary people who despair of politics; even businessmen and entrepreneurs routinely blame politics for their woes even as they benefit from and fund various political parties.
Cinema stars also complain of politics though they seem to be adept at the game once they join it.
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science Chapter 1 Political Theory: An Introduction
‘Politics works as a pursuit of common good of people’. Justify the statement.
Politics implies to power to make laws and to enforce them for common good:
- Common good is both an objective and a procedure to be followed.
- Common good has been evolved with the growth of democracy.
- Common good may be associated with the concept of welfare state.
- Developing nations reflect common good in realization of objectives for a welfare’ state while developed nations believe to common good to be the efforts of state.
Politics as a pursuit of common good:
- Politics discovers a ‘common’ in all and promoter the spirit of ‘common hood’ among people.
- Politics does not refer to class struggle but it is a class permeation.
- The common good serves all the people living in society in place of individuals’ interests only.
- It begins with the establishment of social order and ends up in a state to serve all.
What are the differences between politics and political science?
- Politics may have different ideas to be argued upon.
- Politics is associated with the satisfaction of wants.
- Politics is sometimes considered to be what politicians do. But it associates them with teams due to their false commitments, etc.
- Politics promotes the interests of an individual by all means.
- It is a scientific study of political ideas and principles.
- Political Science shapes the government and public opinion in a well-mannered way.
- Political science examines the defections, false commitment and false promises made by politicians.
- Political Science examines the validity of concepts of equality, justice, freedom, democracy, secularism, etc.
- The philosophers in political science can generate the new ideas to mould society.
NCERT Class 11 Political Science Textbook Chapter 1 Political Theory With Answer PDF Free Download