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Consumer Protection NCERT Textbook With Solutions PDF Free Download
Chapter 12: Consumer Protection
The above case is just one of the examples of the many problems that consumers might have to face in the purchase, use, and consumption of goods and services.
The case also highlights the need for appropriate legal protection to be provided to consumers to protect them from various forms of exploitation from the seller.
Have you ever thought about what would be the plight of consumers if adequate protection is not provided to them? Can present-day businesses afford to ignore the interests of consumers?
The area of consumer protection has emerged as a very important area of study having
significance for both the consumers and businesses alike.
A consumer is said to be a king in a free market economy. The earlier approach of caveat emptor, which means “Let the buyer beware”, has now been changed to caveat venditor
(“Let the seller beware”).
However, with growing competition and in an attempt to increase their sales and market share, manufacturers, and service providers may be tempted to engage in unscrupulous, exploitative, and unfair trade practices like defective and unsafe products, adulteration, false and misleading advertising, hoarding, black-marketing, etc.
This means that a consumer might be exposed to risks due to unsafe products, might suffer from bad health due to adulterated food products, might be created because of misleading advertisements or sale of spurious products, and might have to pay a higher price when sellers engage in overpricing, hoarding or black marketing, etc.
Thus, there is a need for providing adequate protection to consumers against such practices of the sellers. Let us now discuss the importance of consumer protection.
Consumer Protection has a wide agenda. It not only includes educating consumers about their rights and responsibilities but also helps in getting their grievances redressed.
It not only requires judicial machinery for protecting the interests of consumers but also requires the consumers to get together and form themselves into consumer associations for the protection and promotion of their interests.
At the same time, consumer protection has a special significance for businesses too.
The Consumer Protection Act, 1986
The Consumer Protection Act (CPA) seeks to protect and promote the consumers’ interest in speedy and inexpensive redressal of their grievances. The scope of the Act is very wide.
It is applicable to all types of undertakings, big and small, whether in the private or public sector, or in the co-operative sector, whether a manufacturer or a trader, and whether supplying goods or providing services.
The Act confers certain rights to consumers with a view to empowering them and protecting their interests.
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 12 Consumer Protection
Q.1 Enumerate the various Acts passed by the Government of India which help in the protection of consumers’ interests.
Here is a list of the acts that are passed by the Government of India in order to protect consumer interests:
1. CPA or Consumer Protection Act, 1986: This act provides protection to the consumers against different forms of exploitation such as unfair trade practices, deficiency in services, or defective goods.
As per this act, there is a three-level redressal mechanism to address all consumer complaints. These levels are i) District forum, ii) State Commission, and iii) National Commission.
2. The Contract Act, 1982: Under this act, the conditions on the basis of which promises in a contract are made binding are defined. Also, the act provides solutions in case there is a breach of the contract.
3. The Agriculture Produce or Grading and Marking Act, 1937: This act defines standards for livestock and agricultural commodities. It provides procedures for packing, grading, and marking of agricultural products. The quality certification that is provided by the Act is known as AGMARK.
4. The Standards of Weights and Measures Act, 1976: This act helps in the safeguarding of the interests of the consumers for practices that are related to the goods that are under-measure and underweight.
5. The Sale of Goods Act, 1930: It provides protection to the consumers in case the product or good purchased by them is not abiding by the warranties and conditions that are associated with the good or product.
6. The Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954: This act is used for checking and preventing food adulteration and thereby maintaining the purity of the product.
7. The Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986: As per this act, BIS or Bureau of Indian Standards is established for formulating the standards of goods quality and providing certification of quality for those products as per the BIS certification scheme. The quality certification provided is known as the ISI mark. It also addresses the redressal of complaints regarding product quality.
8. The Essential Commodities Act, 1955: As per this act, it provides for any type of control in the production, distribution, and supply of essential goods. It also tracks black marketing and ensures quality in product distribution.
9. The Competition Act, 2002: This act prevents any such practice by the business firms which will delay the competition in the market.
10. The Trade Marks Act, 1999: This act is formed for checking the use of false marks on consumer goods and subsequently protecting consumers against the use of such goods.
Q.2 What are the responsibilities of a consumer?
A customer can have some responsibilities which are enumerated as follows:
1. A consumer should be aware of the goods and services availability. It will make the customer informed and accordingly, the customer can make the choice.
2. A consumer must check all the appropriate quality marks on the items before purchasing the items. For example, checking the hallmark symbols before purchasing jewelry.
3. A consumer must always ask for a cash memo for the product or service that is purchased. It acts as proof that the purchase happened and can be used as a reference in case of any dispute that may arise in the future.
4. Consumers must read the labels about price, expiry date, etc. before making a purchase.
5. A consumer must always deal with honesty and do not involve in illegal business deals for benefit.
6. A consumer must read the manuals that are provided with the equipment in order to be safe.
7. A consumer must file a complaint about a product that is defective or lacking any functions as mentioned for the product. Complaints must be done in the appropriate forum.
8. Consumers must keep the environment clean by avoiding pollution or generating waste from products purchased.
Q.3 Who can file a complaint in a consumer court?
Under the Consumer Protection Act, many establishments have been established for redressal of grievances of consumers, these establishments are consumer forums and consumer courts. As per the act, the following type of entities can file a complaint in a consumer court:
1. Any individual consumer.
2. Any registered consumer organization or any such association.
3. The state and the central government.
4. An individual consumer or a group of such consumers who are representing a large number of consumers each having the same type of interest.
5. Any legal representative or heir of a consumer who is deceased.
NCERT Class 12 Business Studies Textbook Chapter 12 With Answer PDF Free Download