The C Programming Language Tutorial Book PDF Free Download
A Tutorial Introduction
- Getting Started
- Variables and Arithmetic The For Statement
- Symbolic Constants
- A Collection of Useful Programs
- rguments Call by
- Character Arrays
- Scope: External Variables
- Types, Operators and Expressions
- Variable Names
- Data Types and Sizes
- Arithmetic Operators
- Relational and Logical Operators
- Type Conversions
- Increment and Decrement Operators Bit se Logical Operators
- Assignment Operators and Expressions Conditional
- Expressions Precedence and Order of Evaluation
C is a general-purpose programming language. It has been closely associated with the UNIX system, since it was developed on that system, and since UNIX and its software are written in C.
The language, however, is not tied to anyone operating system or machine; and although it has been called a “system programming language” because it is useful for writing operating systems,
it has been used equally well to write major numerical, text processing, and database programs.
C is a relatively low-level” language. This characterization is not pejorative; it simply means that C deals with the same sort of objects that most computers do, namely characters, numbers, and addresses.
These may be combined and moved about with the usual arithmetic and logical operators implemented by actual machines.
C provides no operations to deal directly with composite objects such as character strings, sets, lists, or arrays considered as a whole.
There is no analog, for example, of the PL/I operations which manipulate an entire array or string.
The language does not define any storage allocation facility other than static definition and the stack discipline provided by the local variables of functions: there is no heap or garbage collection like that provided by Algol 68.
Finally, C itself provides no input-output facilities: there are no READ or WRITE statements, and no wired-in file access methods.
All of these higher-level mechanisms must be provided by explicitly-called functions.
Similarly, C offers only straightforward, single-thread control flows constructions: tests, loops, grouping, and subprograms, but not multiprogramming, parallel operations, synchronization, or coroutines.
Although the absence of some of these features may seem like a grave deficiency (You mean I have to call a function to compare two character strings?”),
keeping the language down to modest dimensions has brought real benefits. Since C is relatively small, it can be described in a small space and learned quickly.
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