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NCERT Class 12 Political Science Textbook Chapter 6 With Answer PDF Free Download
Chapter 6: The Crisis of Democratic Order
We have already studied the changes that were taking place in Indian politics since 1967.
Indira Gandhi had emerged as a towering leader with tremendous popularity. This was also the period when party competition became bitter and polarised.
This period also witnessed tensions in the relationship between the government and the judiciary.
The Supreme Court found many initiatives of the government to be violative of the Constitution.
The Congress party took the position that this stand of the Court was against principles of democracy and parliamentary supremacy.
Congress also alleged that the Court was a conservative institution and it was becoming an obstacle in the way of implementing pro-poor welfare programs.
The parties opposed to the Congress felt that politics was becoming too personalized and that governmental authority was being converted into personal authority. The split in the Congress had sharpened the divisions between Indira Gandhi and her opponents.
In the elections of 1971, Congress had given the slogan of garibi hatao (remove poverty). However, the social and economic conditions in the country did not improve much
The Bangladesh crisis had put a heavy strain on India’s economy. About eight million people crossed over the East Pakistan border into India.
This was followed by war with Pakistan. After the war, the U.S government stopped all aid to India. In the international market, oil prices increased manifold during this period.
This led to an all-around increase in the prices of commodities. Prices increased by 23 percent in 1973 and 30 percent in 1974. Such a high level of inflation caused much hardship to the people.
Industrial growth was low and unemployment was very high, particularly in the rural areas. In order to reduce expenditure, the government froze the salaries of its employees.
This caused further dissatisfaction among government employees. Monsoons failed from 1972-1973.
This resulted in a sharp decline in agricultural productivity. Food grain output declined by 8 percent.
There was a general atmosphere of dissatisfaction with the prevailing economic situation all over the country.
In such a context non-Congress opposition parties were able to organize popular protests effectively.
Instances of students unrests that had persisted from the late 1960s
became more pronounced in this period.
There was also an increase in the activities of Marxist groups that did not believe in parliamentary politics.
These groups had taken to arms and insurgent techniques for the overthrow of the capitalist order and the established political system.
Known as the Marxist-Leninist (now Maoist) groups or Naxalites, they were particularly strong in West Bengal, where the State government took stringent measures to suppress them.
|No. of Pages||26|
|PDF Size||2.9 MB|
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 6 The Crisis of Democratic Order
1. Explain the reasons for the student movement of 1974 in Bihar and the role played by Jayaprakash Narayan in this movement.
Answer: Reasons for Student’s Movement of 1974:
Students organized movement against:
1. Rising prices of food grains, cooking oil, and other essential commodities.
2. Corruption in high places.
Assess Role played by Jai Prakash Narayan:
Satyagraha was organized by Jayaprakash Narayan for Indira Gandhi’s resignation, he appealed to people not to obey illegal and immoral orders by a massive demonstration on 25 June 1975. All these changed the political mood of the country against Congress.
2. Evaluate the consequences of the declaration of emergency in 1975?
Answer: 1. It affected the civil liberties of people i.e.
in April11976 it was proved that the
the government could take away citizens’ right to life and liberty by overruling high courts under supreme courts and accepting the government’s plea.
2. The fourth-second Amendment was also passed to bring a series of changes to the constitution.
3. It affected the functioning of mass media also as press censorship took place which banned freedom of press and newspapers, which were supposed to have prior approval before they publish any material.
4. Despite filing many petitions government claimed it not to be necessary to be informed of the grounds for arrested persons.
3. Explain any two lessons learned from the emergency imposed in 1975.
Answer: The emergency brought out weaknesses and strengths in India’s democracy:
1. the First lesson was felt that it was extremely difficult to do away with democracy in India.
2. Secondly, it amended that an internal emergency could be proclaimed only on the grounds of armed rebellion, on the advice to the president to proclaim an emergency must be given in writing by the council of ministers.
3. Thirdly, emergency made everyone more aware of civil liberties as well as courts also took an active role in protecting the civil liberties of individuals.
4. Examine the legacy of the emergency of 1975 in India.
Answer: The legacy of emergency was felt in every
sphere of people’s life and politics:
1. Between the elections of 1977 and 1980, Congress identified itself with a particular ideology, claiming to be the only socialist and pro-poor party.
2. The concept of non-Congression was created among opposition parties.
3. The issues of welfare of backward classes began to dominate politics i. e. northern states elected non¬Congress leaders of backward class since 1977.
4. This period of emergency saw the period of constitutional crisis lose its origin in the constitutional battle over the jurisdiction of parliament and judiciary.
5. This period created a political crisis also as the party in power enjoyed an absolute majority, still decided to suspend the democratic process.
6. The emergency tensed between institution-based democracy and democracy based on spontaneous popular participation for which party system was to be blamed.
The Crisis of Democratic Order NCERT Textbook With Solutions PDF Free Download