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NCERT Class 9 Science Textbook Chapter 15 With Answer PDF Free Download
Chapter 15: Improvement in Food Resources
We know that all living organisms need food. Food supplies proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals, all of which we require for body development, growth, and health.
Both plants and animals are major sources of food for us. We obtain most of this food from agriculture and animal husbandry.
We read in newspapers that efforts are always being made to improve production from agriculture and animal husbandry.
Why is this necessary? Why we cannot make do with the current levels of production India is a very populous country. Our population is more than one billion people, and it is still growing.
As food for this growing population, we will soon need more than a quarter of a billion tonnes of grain every year. This can be done by farming on more land.
But India is already intensively cultivated. As a result, we do not have any major scope for increasing the area of land under cultivation.
Therefore, it is necessary to increase our production efficiency for both crops and livestock.
Efforts to meet the food demand by increasing food production have led to some successes so far.
We have had the green revolution, which contributed to increased food-grain production. We have also had the white revolution, which has led to better and more efficient use as well as the availability of milk.
However, these revolutions mean that our natural resources are getting used more intensively. As a result, there are more chances of causing damage to our natural resources to the point of destroying their balance completely.
Therefore, it is important that we should increase food production without degrading our environment and disturbing the balance maintaining it.
Hence, there is a need for sustainable practices in agriculture and animal husbandry.
Also, simply increasing grain production for storage in warehouses cannot solve the problem of malnutrition and hunger.
People should have money to purchase food. Food security depends on both the availability of food and access to it.
The majority of our population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Increasing the incomes of people working in agriculture is, therefore, necessary to combat the problem of hunger.
Scientific management practices should be undertaken to obtain high yields from farms.
For sustained livelihood, one should undertake mixed farming, intercropping, and integrated
farming practices, for example, combine agriculture with livestock/poultry/fisheries/ bee-keeping.
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NCERT Solutions Class 9 Science Chapter 15 Improvement in Food Resources
Q1. Explain any one method of crop production which ensures high yield.
Plant breeding is one of the methods adopted for high yield plant breeding and is implemented to improve the varieties of crops by breeding plants.
Plants from various places/areas are picked up with preferred traits and then the process of hybridization or cross-breeding is done among these diversities to get a crop/plant of anticipated characteristic.
Q2. Why are manure and fertilizers used in fields?
Manures and fertilizers are used to enrich the soil quality and improve the yield. They also help in controlling the diseases.
Manure and fertilizers replenish the soil by supplying nutrients the soil. They are an excellent source of potassium, phosphorous, and nitrogen which assist in the healthy development of plants. Manures and fertilizers mainly improve the fertility of the soil.
Q3. What are the advantages of inter-cropping and crop rotation?
- Checks pests and rodents and hence decrease the chances of the spoiling whole crops.
- Decreased chances of soil erosion.
- Reduced loss of crops with high yield.
- Less water requirement.
- Farmers can grow two or three crops annually.
- Pulses take nitrogen directly from the atmosphere, and hence require a minimal amount of fertilizers.
- Both fruits and vegetables can be grown easily.
- Best use of land with a proper supply of nutrients.
Q4. What is genetic manipulation? How is it useful in agricultural practices?
Genetic manipulation is a process in which the transfer of genes takes place from one organism to another. Here gene of a particular character is introduced inside the chromosome cell and hence results in a transgenic plant.
Example: BT Cotton is a genetically modified crop that carries bacterial genes, that protects this plant from insects. These are used in plants like brinjal, cabbage, rice, cauliflower, and maize crops to get protection from insects.
Q5. How do storage grain losses occur?
Storage grain losses occur due to various abiotic and biotic factors.
Q6. How do good animal husbandry practices benefit farmers?
- Good practice of animal husbandry benefits farmers in the following ways:
- Yields in good quality cattle
- Better quality of milk production
- Use in agriculture for carting, irrigation, and tilling
Q7. What are the benefits of cattle farming?
Benefits of cattle farming are:
- Cattles are used for agricultural purposes
- Generation of good quality cattle
- Milking and meat purpose
- The skin of cattle is used for the leather and wool industry
Improvement in Food Resources NCERT Textbook With Solutions PDF Free Download