Haloalkanes And Haloarenes Chapter 10 Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Textbook PDF

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Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Chapter 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

The replacement of hydrogen atom(s) in a hydrocarbon, aliphatic or aromatic, by a halogen
atom(s) results in the formation of alkyl halide (haloalkane) and aryl halide (haloarene), respectively.

Haloalkanes contain halogen atom(s) attached to the sp3 hybridized carbon atom of an alkyl group whereas haloarenes contain halogen atom(s) attached to sp 2 hybridized carbon atom(s) of an aryl group.

Many halogen-containing organic compounds occur in nature and some of these are clinically useful. These classes of compounds find wide applications in industry as well as in day-to-day life.

They are used as solvents for relatively non-polar compounds and as starting materials for the synthesis of a wide range of organic compounds.

Chlorine-containing antibiotic, chloramphenicol, produced by soil microorganisms is very effective for the treatment of typhoid fever.

Our body produces iodine-containing hormone, thyroxine, the deficiency of which causes a disease called goiter.

Synthetic halogen compounds, viz. chloroquine are used for the treatment of malaria; halothane is used as an anesthetic during surgery.

Certain fully fluorinated compounds are being considered as potential blood substitutes in surgery.

In this Unit, you will study the important methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and uses of organohalogen compounds.

Methyl chloride, methyl bromide, ethyl chloride, and some chlorofluoromethanes are gases at room temperature. Higher members are liquids or solids.

As we have already learned, molecules of organic halogen compounds are generally polar.

Due to greater polarity as well as higher molecular mass as compared to the parent hydrocarbon, the intermolecular forces of attraction (dipole-dipole and van der Waals) are stronger in the halogen derivatives.

That is why the boiling points of chlorides, bromides, and iodides are considerably higher than those
of the hydrocarbons of comparable molecular mass.

The attractions get stronger as the molecules get bigger in size and have more electrons.

The pattern of variation of boiling points of different halides is depicted in Fig. 10.1.

For the same alkyl group, the boiling points of alkyl halides decrease in the order: RI> RBr> RCl> RF.

This is because, with the increase in size and mass of the halogen atom, the magnitude of van der Waal forces increases.

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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Question 10.1: Name the following halides according to the IUPAC system and classify them as alkyl, allyl, benzyl ( primary, secondary, tertiary ), vinyl, or aryl halides :

(i) (CH3)2CHCH(Cl)CH3

(ii) CH3CH2CH(CH3)CH(C2H5)Cl

(iii) CH3CH2C(CH3)2CH2I

(iv) (CH3)3CCH2CH(Br)C6H5

(v) CH3CH(CH3)CH(Br)CH3

(vi) CH3C(C2H5)2CH2Br

(vii) CH3C(Cl)(C2H5)CH2CH3

(viii) CH3CH=C(Cl)CH2CH(CH3)2

(ix) CH3CH=CHC(Br)(CH3)2

(x) p-ClC6H4CH2CH(CH3)2

(xi) m-ClCH2C6H4CH2C(CH3)3

(xii) o-Br-C6H4CH(CH3)CH2CH3



2 − Chloro − 3 – methylbutane

(Secondary alkyl halide)


3 − Chloro − 4 – methyhexane

(Secondary alkyl halide)


1 − Iodo − 2 , 2 – dimethylbutane

(Primary alkyl halide)


1 − Bromo – 3, 3 – dimethyl – 1 – phenylbutane

(Secondary benzyl halide)


2 − Bromo – 3 – methylbutane

(Secondary alkyl halide)


1 − Bromo − 2 − ethyl − 2 – methylbutane

(Primary alkyl halide)


3 − Chloro − 3 – methylpentane

(Tertiary alkyl halide)



(Vinyl halide)


4 − Bromo − 4 − methylpent − 2 – ene

(Allyl halide)


1 − Chloro − 4 – ( 2 − methylpropyl ) benzene

(Aryl halide)


1 – Chloromethyl – 3 − ( 2, 2 – dimethylpropyl ) benzene

(Primary benzyl halide)


1 − Bromo − 2 – ( 1 − methylpropyl ) benzene

(Aryl halide)

Haloalkanes And Haloarenes NCERT With Solution PDF Free Download

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