Strategies for Enhancement In Food Reproduction Class 12 Biology NCERT PDF

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Strategies for Enhancement in Food Reproduction

Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Reproduction

9.1 Animal Husbandry

Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock. As such it is a vital skill for farmers and is as much science as it is art.

Animal husbandry deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes, cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that
are useful to humans.

Extended, it includes poultry farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching, selling, etc., fish, mollusks (shellfish), and crustaceans (prawns, crabs, etc.).

Since time immemorial, animals like bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle, sheep, and camels have been used by humans for products like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.

It is estimated that more than 70 percent of the world’s livestock population is in India and China. However, it is surprising to note that the contribution to the world of farm produce is only 25 percent, i.e.,

the productivity per unit is very low. Hence, in addition to conventional practices of animal breeding and care, newer technologies also have to be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity.

surprising to note that the contribution to the world of farm produce is only 25 percent, i.e., the productivity per unit is very low.

Hence, in addition to conventional practices of animal breeding and care, newer technologies also have to be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity. Dairy Farm Management

Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for human consumption. Can you list the animals that you would expect to find in a dairy?

What are different kinds of products that can be made with milk from a dairy farm?

In dairy farm management, we deal with processes and systems that increase yield and improve the quality of milk.

Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds on the farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (under the climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to diseases is very important.

For the yield potential to be realized the cattle have to be well looked after – they have to be housed well, should have adequate water, and be maintained disease-free.

The feeding of cattle should be carried out in a scientific manner – with special emphasis on the quality and quantity of fodder.

Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking, storing, and transporting the milk and its products.

Nowadays, of course, many of these processes have become mechanized, which reduces the chance of direct contact of the product with the handler.

Ensuring these stringent measures would, of course, require regular inspections, with proper record keeping.

It would also help to identify and rectify the problems as early as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be mandatory.

Language English
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Reproduction

1. Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.
Animal husbandry is a branch of agriculture associated with rearing animals for their meat, eggs, milk, fiber, and other products of commercial significance.

It includes caring for animals on a day-to-day basis, performing selective breeding, and a host of other related activities.

It became an essential part of human welfare ever since humans moved on from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Following are the roles of animal husbandry in human welfare:

  • Production of meat: Meat is a valuable source of energy and dietary proteins.
  • Production of dairy products: Animal husbandry provides a wide range of dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, ghee, and curd. These may be further processed for other commercial products such as ice creams and cottage cheese (paneer).
  • Production of fiber: Animals such as sheep and goats are primarily reared for their wool. Insects such as silkworms are highly valuable from a commercial perspective.
  • Labour: Certain animals such as horses, donkeys, and buffaloes are well-suited for mechanical labor. They are cost-effective and very efficient. Before industrialization, it was the only non-human source of mechanical labor.
  • Production of fertilizers: Fertilizers are quite crucial for plant growth. Furthermore, natural fertilizers provided other benefits such as an alternate source of fuel and insulation.

2. If your family owned a dairy farm, what measures would you undertake to improve the quality and quantity of milk production?
The quality and quantity of milk are primarily dependent upon the type of breed. Aside from this, the following are a few measures that an individual or a dairy farmer would take to improve the quality and quantity of milk production:

  • Dairy cows or other milk-producing animals have to be kept in a well-ventilated housing.
  • An adequate supply of clean water must be provided.
  • Emphasis should be provided on the quality and quantity of the feed.
  • Ensure stringent hygiene and cleanliness when handling cattle or other dairy animals.
  • Regular visits to the vet also reduce the chance of contracting illnesses.
  • Ensure the animals are regularly vaccinated.

3. What is meant by the term ‘breed’? What are the objectives of animal breeding?

A ‘breed’ is defined as a group of animals that have a common descent and share standard characteristic features such as size and appearance. The common objectives of animal breeding are:

  • To increase the yield of animals (concerning dairy, fiber, meat)
  • To increase the desirable traits and features (such as cows that are selectively bred for larger quantities of meat)
  • To increase disease resistance
  • To produce superior breeds

4. Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you, which of the methods is best? Why?

Animal breeding can be classified into two types:

  • Natural Methods of Breeding
  • Artificial Methods of Breeding

Natural Methods of Breeding Involves:

  • Outcrossing
  • Cross-breeding
  • Inter-specific hybridization

Artificial Methods of Breeding Involves:

  • Artificial Insemination
  • MOET (multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology)

From a commercial perspective, MOET is considered the best method of breeding as it overcomes the hurdles of natural breeding while ensuring high success rates for crossing between male and female animals. It is also more economically viable than the other mentioned techniques.

5. What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?

Apiculture or beekeeping is defined as the processes and steps necessary to ensure the upkeep and maintenance of honey-bee hives for the production of honey. Honey is essential for many reasons:

  • It is highly nutritious and is used as an ingredient in many dishes.
  • It can replace sugar as a healthier alternative.
  • Besides culinary applications, honey has also been used to heal wounds due to its antibacterial properties.
  • It is also considered to alleviate cold and cough symptoms.
  • From a commercial perspective, it is considered an income-generating activity and is not very labor-intensive.

6. Discuss the role of the fishery in the enhancement of food production.

Fisheries is defined as a coordinated effort to capture or rear fish through fishing farms and aquaculture.

However, fisheries are not just limited to fish; for instance, oysters are selectively bred for pearls, shells, and tissues. Fisheries play a significant role in food production, especially in India.

From a dietary perspective, fish is an affordable source of animal protein. From a commercial perspective, fisheries provide employment opportunities for residents in coastal areas.

7. Briefly describe various steps involved in plant breeding.

Plant breeding is defined as the process of changing select traits in order to bring about desired characteristics. It is primarily used for improving the nutritional value of plants. Following are the steps observed in plant breeding:

  • Accumulation of genetic variability
  • Germplasm evaluation & parent selection
  • Cross hybridization of selected parents
  • Choosing superior hybrids
  • Testing viability of new cultivars

8. Explain what biofortification is?

Bio-fortification is a process of breeding crops to improve their nutritional value. Biofortification is different from food enrichment as the emphasis is given to plants being nutritious as they are growing rather than adding in the nutrients during food processing.

It is primarily aimed at reducing deficiency disorders in the general public. Examples of biofortified crops involve golden rice, a variety of rice (Oryza sativa) genetically engineered to have increased amounts of beta carotene, a precursor to Vitamin A.

Micronutrient deficiency is common in developing and under-developed countries. Hence, biofortified crops are a feasible option to tackle this problem.

9. Which part of the plant is best suited for making virus-free plants and why?

Virus-free plants can be made if the axillary and apical meristem are used. These regions are used as they are unaffected by the virus when compared to the rest of the plant. Scientists have used this method to develop virus-free plants of sugarcane, banana, potato, etc.

10. What is the major advantage of producing plants through micropropagation?

Micropropagation is a method wherein new plants are produced in a shorter duration with the help of plant tissue culture methodologies. The major advantages are as follows:

  • Micropropagation helps to propagate large amounts of plants in a relatively short amount of time.
  • The resultant plants are identical to the parent plant.
  • Production of disease-resistant crops.

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