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Rights In the Indian Constitution NCERT Textbook With Solutions Book PDF Free Download
Chapter 2: Rights In the Indian Constitution
In 1982 during the construction work for Asian Games the government engaged a few contractors.
These contractors employed a large number of very poor construction workers from different parts of the country to build the flyovers and stadiums.
These workers were kept in poor working conditions and were paid less than the minimum wages decided by the government.
A team of social scientists studied their poor condition and petitioned the Supreme Court.
They argued that employing a person to work for less than the minimum prescribed wage amounts to begar or forced labour, which is a violation of the Fundamental Right against exploitation.
The court accepted this plea and directed the government to ensure that thousands of workers get the prescribed wages for their work.
Machal Lalung was 23 when he was arrested. A resident of Chuburi village of Morigaon district of Assam, Machal was charged of causing grievous injuries.
He was found mentally too unstable to stand trial and was sent as under trial to Lok Priya Gopinath Bordoloi Mental Hospital in Tejpur for treatment.
Machal was treated successfully and doctors wrote twice to jail authorities in 1967 and 1996 that he was fit to stand trial. But no one paid any attention.
Machal Lalung remained in “judicial custody.’’ Machal Lalung was released in July 2005. He was 77 then.
He spent 54 years under custody during which his case never came up for hearing. He was freed when a team appointed by the National Human Rights Commission intervened after an inspection of undertrials in the State.
Machal’s entire life was wasted because a proper trial against him never took place. Our Constitution gives every citizen the right to ‘life and liberty’: this means that every citizen must also have the right to fair and speedy trial.
Machal’s case shows what happens when rights granted by the Constitution are not available in practice.
In the case of the first instance also there was violation of rights provided in the Constitution. But it was challenged in court.
As a result, workers could get what was due to them in the form of their rightful wages. The constitutional guarantee of the right against exploitation ensured justice to these workers.
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science Chapter 2 Rights In The Indian Constitution
Write true or false against each of these statements:
(a) A Bill of Rights lays down the rights enjoyed by the people of a country.
(b) A Bill of Rights protects the liberties of an individual.
(c) Every country of the world has a Bill of Rights.
(d) The Constitution guarantees remedy against violation of Rights.
Which of the following is the best description of Fundamental Rights?
(а) All the rights an individual should have.
(b) All the rights given to citizens by law.
(c) The rights given and protected by the Constitution.
(d) The rights given by the Constitution that cannot ever be restricted.
(c) The rights given and protected by the Constitution.
Read the following situations. Which Fundamental Right is being used or violated in each case and how?
(a) Overweight male cabin crew are allowed to get promotion in the national airlines but their women colleagues who gain weight are penalised.
(b) A director makes a documentary film that criticises the policies of the government.
(c) People displaced by a big dam take out a rally demanding rehabilitation.
(d) Andhra society runs Telugu medium schools outside Andhra Pradesh.
(a) In this situation, Right to Equality is being violated on the ground of discrimination whereas nobody should be discriminated under the Right to Equality on behalf of Caste, Sex, Religion, Race, etc.
(b) In the second situation the Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression is being used.
(c) People displaced by a big dam take out a rally demanding rehabilitation. Though our Constitution grants right to reside and settle in any part of India in the Right to Freedom. But people have Right to Freedom of speech and expression also. In this case, the government can impose some restrictions to maintain law and order.
(d) This case refers to the rights of linguistic minorities to set up their own educational institutions to preserve their culture. Hence, Andhra Pradesh can enjoy the right to run Telugu medium schools outside Andhra Pradesh.
Which of the following is a correct interpretation of the Cultural and Educational Rights?
(a) Only children belonging to the minority group that has opened educational institutions can study there.
(b) Government schools must ensure that children of the minority group will be introduced to their beliefs and culture.
(c) Linguistic and religious minorities can open schools for their children and keep it reserved for them.
(d) Linguistic and religious minorities can demand that their children must not study in any educational institution except those managed by their own community.
(c) The statement of the above options is the correct interpretation because:
- Article 29(i) protects the interest of minorities in India to preserve their own languages, script, and culture.
- Article 30 provides that all minorities shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
Which of the following is a violation of Fundamental Rights and why?
(a) Not paying minimum wages
(b) Banning of a book
(c) Banning of loudspeakers after 9 pm.
(d) Making a speech
(a) Not paying minimum wages is a violation of Fundamental Right because:
- This act comes under Right against Exploitation.
- Begar, forced labour, bonded labour or not paying minimum wages come under the Right against Exploitation.
- It has now been declared a crime and a punishable offence.
NCERT Class 11 Political Science Textbook Chapter 2 Rights In the Indian Constitution With Answer PDF Free Download