Reproductive Health Chapter 4 Class 12 Biology NCERT Textbook PDF

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Reproductive Health

Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

You have learned about the human reproductive system and its functions in Chapter 3. Now, let’s discuss a closely related topic – reproductive health.

What do we understand by this term? The term simply refers to healthy reproductive organs with normal functions.

However, it has a broader perspective and includes the emotional and social aspects of reproduction also.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), reproductive health means total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioral, and social.

Therefore, a society with people having physically and functionally normal reproductive organs and normal emotional and behavioral interactions among them in all sex-related aspects might be called reproductively healthy.

Why is it significant to maintain reproductive health and what are the methods taken up to achieve it? Let us examine them.

4.1 Reproduction Health – Problems And Strategies

India was amongst the first countries in the world to initiate action plans and programs at a national level to attain total reproductive health as a social goal.

These programs called ‘family planning’ were initiated in 1951 and were periodically assessed over the past decades. Improved programs covering wider reproduction-related areas are currently in operation under the popular name ‘Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) programs’.

Creating awareness among people about various reproduction-related aspects and providing facilities and support for building up a reproductively healthy society are the major tasks under these programs.

With the help of audio-visual and print-media government and non-governmental agencies have taken various steps to create awareness among the people about reproduction-related aspects.

Parents, other close relatives, teachers, and friends, also have a major role in the dissemination of the above information.

The introduction of sex education in schools should also be encouraged to provide the right information to the young so as to discourage children from believing in myths and having misconceptions about sex-related aspects.

Proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence and related changes, safe and hygienic sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), AIDS, etc., would help people, especially those in the adolescent age group to lead a reproductively healthy life.

AuthorNCERT
Language English
No. of Pages10
PDF Size659 KB
CategoryBiology
Source/Creditsncert.nic.in

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health

1. What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in society?

Solution:

Reproductive health can be termed as the total well-being in possibly all the aspects of reproduction including emotional, physical, behavioral, and social well-being.

Some diseases can be transferred from one individual to another through sexual contact, for example, gonorrhea, AIDS, etc. They are referred to as sexually transmitted diseases.

Sexual contact can also lead to unwanted pregnancies and further complications in case sexually transmitted diseases are contracted.

Therefore, it is important to create awareness amongst people, the youth in particular, in the context of different topics related to reproduction.

The youth is the future of the country. They are most susceptible to acquiring sexually transmitted diseases.

Hence, some preventive measures that can be adapted are – creating awareness about different birth control methods available, sexually transmitted diseases & their preventive measures, the importance of gender equality.

These steps will greatly impact bringing up a socially conscious healthy family. Also, creating awareness about the uncontrolled population growth and social evils that still exist in the society will promote the concept of bringing up a reproductively healthy society.

2. Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.

Solution:

Reproductive health can be termed as the total well-being in possibly all the aspects of reproduction including emotional, physical, behavioral, and social well-being. The different aspects that require special attention are as follows:

  • Awareness needs to be created in the reproductive and child healthcare
  • Creating awareness amongst people by counseling about reproductive organs, adolescence, hygienic and safe sexual practices, different sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, etc.
  • Sex education needs to be introduced in schools. This helps in eradicating misconceptions and myths in the context of sex-related topics.
  • People should be educated about the different birth control options that are available, care of pregnant mothers, post-natal care of the mother and the newborn, the significance of breast-feeding
  • Professional expertise, strong infrastructural facilities, material support to provide medical assistance and care for the patients facing reproductive issues, issues because of uncontrolled population growth, awareness about family planning, and social evils such as sex abuse and sex-related crime.

3. Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?

Solution:

Yes, sex education is necessary for schools. It is because of the following reasons:

  • To impart apt and necessary information to students in order to save them from misconceptions and myths about sex-related topics
  • Provides appropriate knowledge about adolescence, reproductive organs, and related concepts
  • Creates awareness amongst students about the need for hygienic and safe sexual practices, and sexually transmitted diseases. This helps students, specifically those in adolescence to lead a healthy, reproductive life

4. Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.

Solution:

Yes, there has certainly been an enormous improvement in reproductive health in the past 50 years. Listed below are the areas of improvement:

  • The decrease in the infant mortality rate can be attributed to the Massive child immunization program
  • Drastic decrease due to better post-natal care can be attributed to Maternal and infant mortality rate
  • The awareness created through the Family planning programs has seen people opting for smaller families
  • Decrease in the rate of sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies due to the use of contraceptives

5. What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?

Solution:

Population explosion can be used to refer to the sudden, large increase in the size of a population. There is an increase in the population every day, leading to a population explosion. Two of the major reasons are as follows:

  • Increase in the birth rate and the longevity
  • Decrease in the death rate

In the last 50 years, the death rate has decreased evidently. Decrease in the death rate and increase in the birth rate can be attributed to the various measures that have been adopted such as diseases-control, measures taken to create awareness and spread knowledge of the importance of reproductive health, measures taken to introduce sex-education topics at the school level, better medical facilities, ensuring food supply and medical assistance during emergency times and so on. These reasons have also led to an increase in the longevity of people.

Reproductive Health NCERT Textbook With Solutions PDF Free Download

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