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NCERT Class 12 Political Science Textbook Chapter 9 With Answer PDF Free Download
Chapter 9: Recent Developments in Indian Politics
First, the most crucial development of this period was the defeat of the Congress party in the elections held in 1989.
The party that had won as many as 415 seats in the Lok Sabha in 1984
was reduced to only 197 in this election.
The Congress improved its performance and came back to power soon after the mid-term elections held in 1991. But the elections of 1989 marked the end of what political scientists have called the ‘Congress system’.
To be sure, Congress remained an important party and ruled the country more than any other party even in this period since 1989. But it lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.
The second development was the rise of the ‘Mandal issue’ in national politics.
This followed the decision by the new National Front government in 1990, to implement the recommendation of the Mandal Commission that jobs in central government should be reserved for the Other Backward Classes.
This led to violent ‘anti Mandal’ protests in different parts of the country. This dispute between
the supporters and opponents of OBC reservations were known as the ‘Mandal issue’ and was to play an important role in shaping politics since 1989.
Thus, began an era of a multi-party system. To be sure, a large number of political parties always contested elections in our country. Our Parliament always had representatives from several political parties.
What happened after 1989 was the emergence of several parties in such a way that one or two parties did not get most of the votes or seats.
This also meant that no single party secured a clear majority of seats in any Lok Sabha election held since 1989.
This development initiated an era of coalition governments at the Centre, in which regional parties played a crucial role in forming ruling alliances but in the 2014 and 2019 Lok Sabha elections, the BJP got a clear majority on its own.
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Political Science Chapter 9 Recent Developments in Indian Politics
1. Describe any four major developments in Indian politics since 1989.
Answer: In the midst of severe competition and many conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most parties. This consensus consists of four elements:
(i) Agreement on new economic policies: While many groups are opposed to the new economic policies, most political parties are in support of the new economic policies. Most parties believe that these policies would lead the country to prosperity and status of economic power in the world.
(ii) Acceptance of political and social claims of the backward castes:
Political parties have recognized the social and political claims of the backward castes need to be accepted. As a result, all political parties now support the reservation of seats for the ‘backward classes’ in education and employment. Political parties are also willing to ensure that the OBCs get an adequate share of power.
(iii) Acceptance of the role of state-level parties in the governance of the country: The distinction between state-level and national-level parties is fast becoming less important. State-level parties are showing power at the national level and have played a central role in the country’s politics for the last twenty years or so.
(iv) Emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliances without ideological agreement:
Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power-sharing arrangements.
Thus, most parties of the NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutva’ ideology of the BJP. Yet, they came together to form a government and remained in power for a full term.
2. When and why did a long phase of coalition politics begin in India?
Answer: The era of coalitions could be seen after the 1989 elections onwards. The Congress was the largest party but did not achieve a single majority, hence it decided to act as an opposition party.
This led to the National Front (Alliance of Janata Dal and other regional parties). It received major support from BJP and the left front.
BJP and the left front did not join the government but gave support from outside. The coalition era had many PMs and some of them held office for a short duration.
3. “Coal ition government helps in consensus building”. Do you agree with the statement? Give arguments in support of your answer.
Answer: In the midst of severe competition and conflicts, a consensus appears to have emerged among most parties consisting of the following four elements:
1. Most political parties were in support of new economic policies to lead the country to prosperity and status of economic power in the world.
2. All political parties supported, the reservation of seats for backward
classes in education and employment and even to ensure the OBCs get an adequate share of power.
3. Role of state-level parties was accepted in the governance of the country.
4. Coalition politics has shifted the focus of political parties from ideological differences to power-sharing arrangements. Hence most of the NDA did not agree on the Hindutva ideology of the BJP, still they came together to form a government and remained in power for the full term.
4. Write a note on Hindu-Muslim Riots in Gujarat.
Answer: 1. The Anti-Muslim Riots took place at a station called Godhara in 2002.
2. A fire took place on a bogey full of leorsevakos returning from Ayodhya.
3. The hand of Muslims was suspected behind this fire.
4. Widespread violence took place against Muslims in which nearly 1100, mostly Muslims were killed.
5. Human Right commission criticized the Gujarat government’s role in failing to control violence and providing relief to victims.
6. Gujarat riots show that the government machinery also becomes susceptible to passion and alerts us of the danger involved in using religious sentiments for political purposes.
Recent Developments in Indian Politics NCERT Textbook With Solutions PDF Free Download