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## NCERT Class 10 Maths Textbook Chapter 2 With Answer Book PDF Free Download

### Chapter 1: Polynomials

#### 2.2 Geometrical Meaning of the Zeroes of a Polynomial

You know that a real number k is a zero of the polynomial p(x) if p(k) = 0. But why are the zeroes of a polynomial so important?

To answer this, first, we will see the geometrical representations of linear and quadratic polynomials and the geometrical meaning of their zeroes.

#### 2.5 Summary

In this chapter, you have studied the following points:

- Polynomials of degrees 1, 2 and 3 are called linear, quadratic and cubic polynomials respectively.
- A quadratic polynomial in x with real coefficients is of the form ax 2 + bx + c, where a, b, c are real numbers with a ≠ 0.
- The zeroes of a polynomial p(x) are precisely the x-coordinates of the points, where the graph of y = p(x) intersects the x-axis.
- A quadratic polynomial can have at most 2 zeroes and a cubic polynomial can have at most 3 zeroes

Author | NCERT |

Language | English |

No. of Pages | 18 |

PDF Size | 962 KB |

Category | Mathematics |

Source/ Credits | ncert.nic.in |

### NCERT Solutions Class 10 Maths Chapter 2 Polynomials

**1. Find the zeroes of the following quadratic polynomials and verify the relationship between the zeroes and the coefficients.**

**Solutions:**

**(i) x ^{2}–2x –8**

**⇒**x^{2}– 4x+2x–8 = x(x–4)+2(x–4) = (x-4)(x+2)

Therefore, zeroes of polynomial equation x^{2}–2x–8 are (4, -2)

Sum of zeroes = 4–2 = 2 = -(-2)/1 = -(Coefficient of x)/(Coefficient of x^{2})

Product of zeroes = 4×(-2) = -8 =-(8)/1 = (Constant term)/(Coefficient of x^{2})

**(ii) 4s ^{2}–4s+1**

⇒4s^{2}–2s–2s+1 = 2s(2s–1)–1(2s-1) = (2s–1)(2s–1)

Therefore, zeroes of polynomial equation 4s^{2}–4s+1 are (1/2, 1/2)

Sum of zeroes = (½)+(1/2) = 1 = -(-4)/4 = -(Coefficient of s)/(Coefficient of s^{2})

Product of zeros = (1/2)×(1/2) = 1/4 = (Constant term)/(Coefficient of s^{2 })

**(iii) 6x ^{2}–3–7x**

⇒6x^{2}–7x–3 = 6x^{2 }– 9x + 2x – 3 = 3x(2x – 3) +1(2x – 3) = (3x+1)(2x-3)

Therefore, zeroes of polynomial equation 6x^{2}–3–7x are (-1/3, 3/2)

Sum of zeroes = -(1/3)+(3/2) = (7/6) = -(Coefficient of x)/(Coefficient of x^{2})

Product of zeroes = -(1/3)×(3/2) = -(3/6) = (Constant term) /(Coefficient of x^{2 })

**(iv) 4u ^{2}+8u**

⇒ 4u(u+2)

Therefore, zeroes of polynomial equation 4u^{2} + 8u are (0, -2).

Sum of zeroes = 0+(-2) = -2 = -(8/4) = = -(Coefficient of u)/(Coefficient of u^{2})

Product of zeroes = 0×-2 = 0 = 0/4 = (Constant term)/(Coefficient of u^{2 })

**(v) t ^{2}–15**

⇒ t^{2} = 15 or t = ±√15

Therefore, zeroes of polynomial equation t^{2} –15 are (√15, -√15)

Sum of zeroes =√15+(-√15) = 0= -(0/1)= -(Coefficient of t) / (Coefficient of t^{2})

Product of zeroes = √15×(-√15) = -15 = -15/1 = (Constant term) / (Coefficient of t^{2 })

**(vi) 3x ^{2}–x–4**

⇒ 3x^{2}–4x+3x–4 = x(3x-4)+1(3x-4) = (3x – 4)(x + 1)

Therefore, zeroes of polynomial equation3x^{2} – x – 4 are (4/3, -1)

Sum of zeroes = (4/3)+(-1) = (1/3)= -(-1/3) = -(Coefficient of x) / (Coefficient of x^{2})

Product of zeroes=(4/3)×(-1) = (-4/3) = (Constant term) /(Coefficient of x^{2 })

**2. Find a quadratic polynomial each with the given numbers as the sum and product of its zeroes respectively.**

**(i) 1/4 , -1**

**Solution:**

From the formulas of sum and product of zeroes, we know,

Sum of zeroes = α+β

Product of zeroes = α β

Sum of zeroes = α+β = 1/4

Product of zeroes = α β = -1

∴ If α and β are zeroes of any quadratic polynomial, then the quadratic polynomial equation can be written directly as:-

**x ^{2}–(α+β)x +αβ = 0**

**x ^{2}–(1/4)x +(-1) = 0**

**4x ^{2}–x-4 = 0**

**Thus,4x ^{2}–x–4 is the **quadratic polynomial.

**(ii)**√2, 1/3

**Solution:**

Sum of zeroes = α + β =√2

Product of zeroes = α β = 1/3

∴ If α and β are zeroes of any quadratic polynomial, then the quadratic polynomial equation can be written directly as:-

**x ^{2}–(α+β)x +αβ = 0**

**x ^{2} –(**√2

**)x + (1/3) = 0**

**3x ^{2}-3**√2x+1 = 0

**Thus, 3x ^{2}-3**√2x+1

**is the**quadratic polynomial.

**(iii) 0, √5**

**Solution:**

Given,

Sum of zeroes = α+β = 0

Product of zeroes = α β = √5

∴ If α and β are zeroes of any quadratic polynomial, then the quadratic polynomial equation can be written directly

as:-

**x ^{2}–(α+β)x +αβ = 0**

**x ^{2}–(0)x +**√5

**= 0**

**Thus, x ^{2}+**√5

**is the**quadratic polynomial.

**(iv) 1, 1**

**Solution:**

Given,

Sum of zeroes = α+β = 1

Product of zeroes = α β = 1

∴ If α and β are zeroes of any quadratic polynomial, then the quadratic polynomial equation can be written directly as:-

**x ^{2}–(α+β)x +αβ = 0**

**x ^{2}–x+1 = 0**

**Thus, x ^{2}–x+1is the **quadratic polynomial.

**(v) -1/4, 1/4**

**Solution:**

Given,

Sum of zeroes = α+β = -1/4

Product of zeroes = α β = 1/4

**x ^{2}–(α+β)x +αβ = 0**

**x ^{2}–(-1/4)x +(1/4) = 0**

**4x ^{2}+x+1 = 0**

**Thus,4x ^{2}+x+1 is the **quadratic polynomial.

NCERT Class 10 Maths Textbook Chapter 2 With Answer Book PDF Free Download