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Motivation And Emotion NCERT Textbook With Solution PDF Free Download
Chapter 9: Motivation And Emotion
The concept of motivation focuses on explaining what “moves” behaviour. In fact, the term motivation is derived from the Latin word ‘movere’, referring to the movement of activity.
Most of our everyday explanation of behaviour is given in terms of motives. Why do you come to school or college?
There may be any number of reasons for this behaviour, such as you want to learn or to make friends, you need a diploma or degree to get a good job, you want to make your parents happy, and so on.
Some combination of these reasons and/or others would explain why you choose to go in for higher education. Motives also help in making predictions about behaviour.
A person will work hard in school, in sports, in business, in music, and in many other situations, if s/he has a very strong need for achievement.
Hence, motives are the general states that enable us to make predictions about behaviour in many different situations.
In other words, motivation is one of the determinants of behaviour. Instincts, drives, needs, goals, and incentives come under the broad cluster of motivation.
The Motivational Cycle Psychologists now use the concept of the need to describe the motivational properties of behaviour.
A need is a lack or deficit of some necessity. The condition of need leads to drive.
A drive is a state of tension or arousal produced by a need. It energises random activity. When one of the random activities leads to a goal, it reduces the drive, and the organism stops being active.
The organism returns to a balanced state. Thus, the cycle of motivational events can be presented as shown in Fig.9.1. Are there different types of motives?
Are there any biological bases explaining different kinds of motives? What happens if your motive remains unfulfilled?
These are some of the questions we will discuss in the following sections. Basically, there are two types of motives: biological and psychosocial.
Biological motives are also known as physiological motives as they are guided mostly by the physiological mechanisms of the body.
Psychosocial motives, on the other hand, are primarily learned from the individual’s interactions with various environmental factors. However, both types of motives are interdependent on each other.
That is, in some kinds of situations the biological factors may trigger a motive whereas in some other situations, the psychosocial factors may trigger the motive.
Hence, you should keep in mind that no motive is absolutely biological or psychosocial per se, rather they are aroused in the individual with varying combinations.
Biological Motives The biological or physiological approach to explaining motivation is the earliest attempt to understand the causes of behaviour.
Most of the theories, which developed later, carry traces of the influence of the biological approach.
The approach adhering to the concept of adaptive act holds that organisms have needs (internal physiological imbalances) that produce drive, which stimulates behaviour leading to certain actions towards achieving certain goals, which reduce the drive.
The earliest explanations of motivation relied on the concept of instinct. The term instinct denotes inborn patterns of behaviour that are biologically determined rather than learned.
Some common human instincts include curiosity, flight, repulsion, reproduction, parental care, etc. Instincts are innate tendencies found in all members of a species that direct behaviour in predictable ways.
The term instinct most approximately refers to an urge to do something. Instinct has an “impetus” which drives the organism to do something to reduce that impetus.
Some of the basic biological needs explained by this approach are hunger, thirst, and sex, which are essential for the sustenance of the individual
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Psychology Chapter 9 Motivation And Emotion
Question 1. Explain the concept of motivation.
Answer: The term motivation is derived from the Latin word ‘movere’ referring to the movement of activity. Thus it pushes an individual (organism) into activity.
- It can be used to explain drives, needs, goals and incentives… Any behaviour is goal-driven, demands persistence and often preferred or is in favour of one goal over the other.
- It is individual’s internal force which energises and directs behaviour.
Question 2. What are the biological bases of hunger and thirst needs?
- The stimuli of hunger include stomach contractions, which signify that the stomach is empty.
- A low concentration of glucose in the blood
- A low level of protein and the number of fats stored in the body.
- The liver also responds to the lack of bodily fuel by sending nerve impulses to the brain.
- The aroma, taste or appearance of food may also result in a desire to eat.
- They all in combination act with external factors (such as taste, colour by observing others’ eating, the smell of food, etc.) to help one understands that she/he is hungry.
Thirst: When we are deprived of water for a period of several hours, the mouth and throat become dry, which leads to dehydration of body tissues.
- Drinking water is necessary to wet a dry mouth.
- The processes within the body itself control thirst and drinking of water.
- Water must get into the tissues sufficiently to remove the dryness of the mouth and throat.
- The motivation to drink water is mainly triggered by the conditions of the body.
- Loss of water from cells and reduction of blood volume.
- When Water is lost by bodily fluids, water leaves the interior of the cells. The anterior hypothalamus contains nerve cells called ‘osmoreceptors’, which generate nerve impulses in case of cell dehydration. These nerve impulses act as a signal for thirst and drinking.
- The mechanism which explains the intake of water is responsible for stopping the
intake of water.
- The role of stimuli resulting from the intake of water in the stomach have something to do with stopping of drinking water.
- The precise physiological mechanisms underlying the thirst drive are yet to be understood.
NCERT Class 11 Psychology Textbook Chapter 9 Motivation And Emotion With Answer PDF Free Download