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Chapter 5: Minerals and Energy Resources
We use different things in our daily life made from metal. Can you list a number of items used in your house made of metals. Where do these metals come from? You have studied that the earth’s crust is made up of different minerals embedded in the rocks. Various metals are extracted from these minerals after proper refinement.
Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals. The railway lines and the tarmac (paving) of the roads, our implements and machinery too are made from minerals. Cars, buses, trains, aeroplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth. Even the food that we eat contains minerals.
In all stages of development, human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religious and ceremonial rites. Toothpaste cleans your teeth. Abrasive minerals like silica, limestone, aluminium oxide and various phosphate minerals do the cleaning. Fluoride which is used to reduce cavities, comes from a mineral fluorite.
Most toothpaste are made white with titanium oxide, which comes from minerals called rutile, ilmenite and anatase. The sparkle in some toothpastes comes from mica. The toothbrush and tube containing the paste are made of plastics from petroleum. Find out where these minerals are found? You have already learnt about rocks. Rocks are combinations of homogenous substances called minerals. Some rocks, for instance limestone, consist of a single mineral only, but majority of the rock consist of several minerals in varying proportions.
Although, over 2000 minerals have been identified, only a few are abundantly found in most of the rocks. A particular mineral that will be formed from a certain combination of elements depends upon the physical and chemical conditions under which the material forms. This, in turn, results in a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density that a particular mineral possesses. Geologists use these properties to classify the minerals.
However, for general and commercial purposes minerals can be classified as under. MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF MINERALS Where are these minerals found? Minerals are usually found in “ores”. The term ore is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements. The mineral content of the ore must be in sufficient concentration to make its extraction commercially viable.
The type of formation or structure in which they are found determines the relative ease with which mineral ores may be mined. This also determines the cost of extraction. It is, therefore, important for us to understand the main types of formations in which minerals occur. Minerals generally occur in these forms: (i) In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints.
The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes. In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid/ molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface. They cool and solidify as they rise.
Major metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc and lead etc. are obtained from veins and lodes. (ii) In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds or layers. They have been formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata.
Coal and some forms of iron ore have been concentrated as a result of long periods under great heat and pressure. Another group of sedimentary minerals include gypsum, potash salt and sodium salt. These are formed as a result of evaporation especially in arid regions.
(iii) Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rocks, and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite is formed this way
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Social Science Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources
Distinguish between the following
(a) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals
(b) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
(a) Ferrous Minerals:
Ferrous minerals account for about three-fourths of the total value of the production of metallic minerals. They provide a strong base for the development of metallurgical industries. India exports substantial quantities of ferrous minerals after meeting her internal demands.
(b) Non-ferrous Minerals:
India’s reserves and production of non- ferrous minerals is not very satisfactory. However, these minerals, which include copper, bauxite, lead, zinc, and gold, play a vital role in a number of metallurgical, engineering, and electrical industries. Let us study the distribution of copper and bauxite.
Conventional Sources of Energy:
- Conventional source of energy has been used since the early times.
- Coal, Petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectricity, thermal power are the source of energy.
- All conventional sources of energy except hydro-electricity are exhaustible.
- These sources cause environmental pollution.
- These sources require huge capital.
Non-Conventional Sources of Energy:
- Non- the conventional sources of energy have come into use only recently.
- Wind energy, solar energy, tidal energy, geothermal, biogas are examples of these sources of energy.
- Most of the non- conventional sources of energy are inexhaustible.
- These sources do not cause environmental pollution.
- Small amount of money is sufficient to have these sources.
What is a mineral?
Geologists define a mineral as a “homogenous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.” Minerals are found in varied forms in nature, ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest one. Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives. Almost everything we use, from a tiny pin to a towering building or a big ship, all are made from minerals. The railway lines and the tarmac (paving) of the roads, our implements and machinery too are made from minerals. Cars, buses, trains, aeroplanes are manufactured from minerals and run on power resources derived from the earth. Even the food that we eat contains minerals. In all stages of development, human beings have used minerals for their livelihood, decoration, festivities, religious and ceremonial rites.
NCERT Class 11 Social Science Textbook Chapter 5 With Answer PDF Free Download