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Legislature NCERT Textbook With Solutions Book PDF Free Download
Chapter 5: Legislature
Legislature is not merely a law-making body. Lawmaking is but one of the functions of the legislature. It is the center of all democratic political processes. It is packed with action; walkouts, protests, demonstrations, unanimity, concern, and cooperation.
All these serve very vital purposes. Indeed, a genuine democracy is inconceivable without a representative, efficient and effective legislature.
The legislature also helps people in holding the representatives accountable. This is true, the very basis of representative democracy.
Yet, in most democracies, legislatures are losing their central place to the executive. In India too, the Cabinet initiates policies, sets the agenda for governance, and carries them through.
This has led some critics to remark that the Parliament has declined. But even very strong cabinets must retain the majority in the legislature.
A strong leader has to face the Parliament and answer to the satisfaction of the Parliament. Herein lies the democratic potential of the Parliament.
It is recognized as one of the most democratic and open forums of debate. On account of its composition, it is the most representative of all organs of government. It is above all, vested with the power to choose and dismiss the government.
The term ‘Parliament’ refers to the national legislature. The legislature of the States is described as the State legislature.
The Parliament in India has two houses. When there are two houses of the legislature, it is called a bicameral legislature.
The two Houses of the Indian Parliament are the Council of States or the Rajya Sabha and the
House of the People or the Lok Sabha.
The Constitution has given the States the option of establishing either a unicameral or bicameral legislature. At present only seven States have a bicameral legislature.
Countries with large size and much diversity usually prefer to have two houses of the national legislature to give representation to all sections in the society and to give representation to all geographical regions or parts of the country.
A bicameral legislature has one more advantage. A bicameral legislature makes it possible to have every decision reconsidered. Every decision taken by one house goes to the other house for its decision.
This means that every bill and policy would be discussed twice. This ensures a double check on every matter.
Even if one house takes a decision in haste, that decision will come for discussion in the other house and reconsideration will be possible
Each of the two Houses of Parliament has different bases of representation. The Rajya Sabha represents the States of India.
It is an indirectly elected body. Residents of the State elect members to State Legislative Assembly.
The elected members of State Legislative Assembly in turn elect the members of Rajya Sabha.
We can imagine two different principles of representation in the second chamber.
One way is to give equal representation to all the parts of the country irrespective of their size or population. We may call this a symmetrical representation. On the other hand, parts of the country may be given representation according to their
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science Chapter 5 Legislature
Alok thinks that a country needs an efficient government that looks after the welfare of the people. So, if we simply elected our Prime Minister and Ministers and left to them the task of government, we will not need a legislature. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
Alok’s thinking is ignorant because a simple election of the Prime Minister and the minister will create only a dictatorship and a truly representative democracy cannot be materialized:
- A legislature frames the laws and the executives run the government or administration.
- The legislature helps people to hold the council of ministers accountable.
- In the absence of legislature, the council of ministers would become unresponsive to the people’s hopes and aspirations.
A class was debating the merits of a bicameral system. The following points were made during the discussion. Read the arguments and say if you agree or disagree with each of them, giving reasons.
(a) Neha said that bicameral legislature does not serve any purpose.
(b) Shama argued that experts should be nominated in the second chamber.
(c) Tridib said that if a country is not a federation, then there is no need to have a second chamber.
(a) This statement is not true because in a large country like India, two houses of the legislature are preferred to give due representation to all sections of the society as well as the monopoly of either chamber can be approached as ‘check and balance’.
(b) The President nominates 12 members in the Rajya Sabha from among the persons who have distinctions in the field of literature, art, social services, etc., who are experienced and possess intellectual depth.
(c) Tridib’s argument is also not true because the second chamber is also required to give representations to all sections of society even though it might not be the federation.
Why can the Lok Sabha control the executive more effectively than the Rajya Sabha can?
- The government is formed by the party who gets the majority in the Lok Sabha.
- The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected by the poeple.
- The Lok Sabha enjoys the power to remove any executive from the office while the Rajya Sabha cannot remove any executive from the office.
NCERT Class 11 Political Science Textbook Chapter 5 Legislature With Answer PDF Free Download