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Human Memory NCERT Textbook With Solution PDF Free Download
Chapter 7: Human Memory
Memory refers to retaining and recalling information over a period of time, depending upon the nature of cognitive task you are required to perform.
It might be necessary to hold an information for a few seconds.
For example, you use your memory to retain an unfamiliar telephone number till you have reached the telephone instrument to dial, or for many years you still remember the techniques of addition and subtraction which you perhaps learned during your early schooling.
Memory is conceptualised as a process consisting of three independent, though interrelated stages.
These are encoding, storage, and retrieval. Any information received by us necessarily goes through these stages. (a) Encoding is the first stage which refers to a process by which information is recorded and registered for the first time so that it becomes usable by our memory system.
Whenever an external stimulus impinges on our sensory organs, it generates neural impulses. These are received in different areas of our brain for further processing.
In encoding, incoming information is received and some meaning is derived. It is then represented in a way so that it can be processed further. (b) Storage is the second stage of memory.
Information which was encoded must also be stored so that it can be put to use later.
Storage, therefore, refers to the process through which information is retained and held over a period of time.
(c) Retrieval is the third stage of memory. Information can be used only when one is able to recover it from her/his memory.
Retrieval refers to bringing the stored information to her/his awareness so that it can be used for performing various cognitive tasks such as problem solving or decision-making.
It may be interesting to note that memory failure can occur at any of these stages.
You may fail to recall an information because you did not encode it properly, or the storage was weak so you could not access or retrieve it when required. Initially, it was thought that memory is the capacity to store all information that we acquire through learning and experience.
It was seen as a vast storehouse where all information that we knew was kept so that we could retrieve and use it as and when needed.
But with the advent of the computer-human memory came to be seen as a system that processes information in the same way as a computer does.
Both register, store, and manipulate large amount of information and act on the basis of the outcome of such manipulations.
If you have worked on a computer then you would know that it has a temporary memory (random access memory or RAM) and a permanent memory (e.g., a hard disk).
Based on the programme commands, the computer manipulates the contents of its memories and displays the output on the screen.
In the same way, human beings too register information, store and manipulate the stored information depending on the task that they need to perform.
For example, when you are required to solve a mathematical problem, the memory relating to mathematical operations, such as division or subtraction are carried out, activated and put to use, and receive the output (the problem solution).
This analogy led to the development of the first model of memory, which was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968.
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Psychology Chapter 7 Human Memory
Question 1. What is the meaning of the terms ‘encoding’, ‘storage’ and ‘retrieval’?
Answer: Memory is conceptualized as a process consisting of three independent, though interrelated stages. These are:
- It is the first stage which refers to a process by which information is recorded and registered for the first time so that it becomes usable by our memory system.
- In encoding, incoming information is received and some meaning is derived.
- Storage: It is the second stage of memory:
- Information which was encoded must also be stored so that it can be put to use later.
- Storage refers to the process through which information is retained and held over a period of time.
- Retrieval: It is the third stage of memory.
- Information can be used only when one is able to recover it from his/her memory.
- Retrieval refers to bringing the stored information to his/her awareness so that it can be used for performing various cognitive tasks.
Question 2. How is information processed thrdugh sensory, short-term and long-term memory systems?
Answer: Atkinson and Shiffrin model of memory also known as stage model of memory.
- This proposes the existence of three separate but sequentially linked memory systems, the sensory memory, the short-term memory and the long-term memory.
- The sensory memory—contains a fleeting impression of a sensory stimulus (a sight or a sound). It is initial process that preserve brief impression of stimuli. It has a large capacity. It is of very short duration that is less than a second.
- The short-term memory—a limited recollection of recently perceived stimuli (a telephone number or an order of drinks). It holds small amount of information for a brief periocfof time i.e. less than 30 seconds. It is primarily encoded acoustically.
- The long-term memory—a more or less permanent store of memories for later retrieval (e.g. our telephone numbers). In this stage informations are encoded semantically and storage capacity is unlimited.
NCERT Class 11 Psychology Textbook Chapter 7 Human Memory With Answer PDF Free Download