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Development NCERT Textbook With Solutions Book PDF Free Download
Chapter 10: Development
Suppose in a school each class brings out an annual class magazine as one of their extra-curricular activities.
In one class, the teacher takes the last year’s magazine as a model, makes a plan of what this year’s magazine should contain in terms of topics, articles, poetry, etc. and then divides and assigns topics to different students.
It is possible that as a result, a student interested in cricket may find that she has been allotted a different topic and the one who has been allotted cricket is actually keen to write a play.
It is also possible that in this scheme three students may want to get together to work out a series of cartoons but find that they have been placed in different groups.
In another class, however, the content of the magazine is debated by the students. There are many disagreements but eventually, a plan for a magazine emerges about which all are in agreement.
In your opinion, which class will come up with a magazine in which the students get to realize their particular interests in the best possible manner?
The first may produce a good-looking magazine but will the content be engrossing? Will the person who wants to write on cricket, write with equal passion on her assigned topic?
Which magazine will be seen as unique and which as standard? Which class will feel that working on the magazine was interesting and which class will do it as just routine homework?
For a society, deciding about what constitutes development is a bit like students deciding about what kind of school magazine they want and how they should work on it.
We could mechanically follow a model which has been previously used in our own or other countries, or we could plan keeping in mind the good of the society as a whole as well as the rights of those people whose lives may be directly affected by development projects.
The leaders can either concentrate on implementing plans regardless of protests or they can proceed democratically, carrying the people with them.
In the broadest sense of the term, development conveys the ideas of improvement, progress, well-being, and an aspiration for a better life.
Through its notion of development, a society articulates what constitutes its vision for the society as a whole and how best to achieve it.
However, the term development is also often used in a narrower sense to refer to more limited goals such as increasing the rate of economic growth or modernizing society.
Development has unfortunately often come to be identified with achieving pre-set targets or completing projects like dams, factories, and hospitals, rather than with realizing the broader vision of development that the society upholds.
In the process, some sections of society may have benefited while others may have had to suffer the loss of their homes, lands, or way of life, without any compensatory gains.
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NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science Chapter 10 Development
What do you understand by the term ‘development’? Would all sections of society benefit from such a definition of development?
The term ‘Development’ can be understood better in both the broader and narrower sense:
- In a broader sense, development conveys the ideas of improvement, progress, well-being, and aspiration for a better life to constitute the vision for society as a whole and how to achieve it.
- In a narrower sense, it refers to more limited goals such as increasing the rate of economic growth, etc.
Benefits to different sections of society:
- Development has been identified with completing projects like factories, dams, hospitals, and national highways rather than upholding the broader vision of development in society.
- Some sections like industrialists have benefitted while others like up-rooted families and landless people, etc. have lost their homes or lands without any compensatory gain.
- Though, issues regarding the benefits and burdens of development either have been justly distributed or not, have been the main concern for developmental priorities in a democratic setup.
This issue is of debate regarding which model should be adopted to serve as a standard by which the development experience of a country is examined.
Discuss some of the social and ecological costs of the kind of development which has been
pursued in most countries.
Social costs of development:
- Displacement resulted in the loss of livelihood and increased impoverishment.
- Many peoples have been displaced from their homes and localities due to urbanization and industrialization, etc.
- If rural agricultural communities are displaced to end up at the margins of society.
- It results in a loss of culture due to loss of community life because traditional skills acquired over a long period, are also lost.
- Displacement has led to struggles in many countries like India is Narmada Bachao Andolan against Sardar Sarovar Dam on the river Narmada.
- The supporters of this dam claim to generate electricity, irrigate large areas of land, and to provide drinking water to the desert areas of Kutch and Saurashtra whereas the opponents of the dam claim to lose the land through construction by almost one million people.
Ecological costs of development:
- Environmental degradation took place, i.e. Tsunami created damage to a greater extent on South and South East Asia coasts in 2005.
- Global warming is also taking place due to emissions of greenhouse gases into the environment, i.e. ice-melting in Arctic and Antarctic regions has the potential to cause floods and submerge low-lying areas like Bangladesh and Maldives.
- The ecological crisis will adversely affect us, i.e. air pollution.
- Deforestation also affect the forest resources, i.e. medical herbs, firewood or timber, etc
NCERT Class 11 Political Science Textbook Chapter 10 Development With Answer PDF Free Download