Colonial Cities (Urbanisation, Planning And Architecture) NCERT Textbook PDF

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Colonial Cities (Urbanisation, Planning And Architecture) NCERT Textbook With Solutions PDF Free Download

Colonial Cities Urbanisation Planning Architecture

Chapter 12: Colonial Cities (Urbanisation Planning And Architecture)

The British had white skin as they were often described as ‘white’ and they considered themselves superior to others.

On the other hand, the blacks had brown or black skin they were known as the ‘black’.

The White signified their superiority over the black due to the color of their skin.

The British symbolized the Black areas full of chaos and anarchy, filth, and disease and on the other hand, the white areas stood for cleanliness and hygiene.

In Black areas, epidemics like cholera and plague often broke out. So the British took stringent measures to ensure sanitation and public health to prevent diseases in the Black areas.

They ensured underground piped water supply and introduced sewerage and drainage system in White areas.

Thus, we can say, the White Towns were those parts of the colonial towns where the White people lived These towns had wide roads, barracks, churches, parade ground, big bungalows, and gardens, which symbolized settled city life, whereas the Indian lived in Black Towns, were said to be unorganized and a source of filth and disease.

The prominent Indian merchants and traders settled in colonial cities like Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras. They served as agents or middlemen for the British and lived in traditionally built courtyard houses in the Black Town.

They centered over large tracts of land in these cities and heavily made investments for the future.

They wanted to impress their British masters or colonial ruler or white people living in white towns by giving lavish parties during festival seasons and building temples to establish their supremacy and prestige in society.

Sirajudaula, the Nawab of Bengal 1756, sacked the small fort from Britisher. In this fort, the British traders had built to house their goods.

Consequently, when Sirajudaula was defeated in the Battle of Plassey, the British built a new fort, Fort William which could not be easily attacked. Around this, a vast open space was left.

This open space ‘ was called the Maidan or garermath. This was done for security reasons because there would be no obstructions to a straight time of fire from the Fort against an advancing enemy army.

Soon the British began to move out of the Fort. They built residences along the periphery of the Maidan.

This indicates how the English Settlement in Calcutta began to take shape. The vast open space around Fort William became a significant town planning measure in Calcutta (now Kolkata).

Lord Wellesley was more concerned about the conditions that existed in the cities. Cities were overcrowded and had no sanitation facilities.

He issued an administrative order in 1803 on the need for town planning and set up various committees for this purpose open places in the city would make the city healthier.

As a result of this, many bazaars, ghats, burial grounds, and tanneries were cleared or removed. After Wellesley’s departure, the Lottery Committee carried on with the work of town planning in Calcutta.

In the past, buildings were at odds with traditional Indian buildings. Gradually, Indians too got used to European architecture and made it their own.

The British in turn adapted some Indian styles to suit their needs. One example is the bungalow which was used by government officers in Bombay.

The colonial bungalow was set on extensive grounds which ensured privacy. The traditional pitched roof and surrounding veranda kept the bungalow cool in the summer months.

These bungalows can still be seen in the city. Other than that traditional styles of decoration and building exist. The lack of space in the city and crowding led to a type of building unique to Bombay, the chawl.

AuthorNCERT
Language English
No. of Pages30
PDF Size11.2 MB
CategoryHistory
Source/Creditsncert.nic.in

NCERT Solutions Class 12 History Chapter 12 Colonial Cities : Urbanisation Planning And Architecture

1. To what extent are census data useful in reconstructing patterns of urbanization in the colonial context? (or)
“A careful study of census reveals some fascinating trends of urbanization in 19th century.” Support the statement with facts.
Ans: A careful study of the data collected through the census provides us with a lot of information in understanding the trend of urbanization. It can be examined as under:

(a) The process of urbanization was sluggish in India after 1800.
(b) In the nineteenth century and in the first two decades of the twentieth century the proportion of the urban population was very low and stagnant.

(c) recorded between 1900 and 1940, A 13% increase in the urban population which recorded whereas, during the same period, there was an overall 10% increase in the population of the whole country.
(d) The data, thus, collected helps us in the enumeration of people according to their age, sex, caste, religion, occupation, etc.

2. What do the terms “White” and “Black” Town signify?
Ans: The White Town was the area where Europeans lived. These areas were separate. They had broad streets, bungalows set amidst large gardens, barracks, parade ground, and church. They were safe heaven for the Europeans.

For example in Madras Fort St. George was the nucleus of the White Town where most of the Europeans lived. Walls and bastions made this a distinct enclave.

The Black Town, on the other hand, was meant for Indians – the Indian agents, middlemen, weavers, artisans, and interpreters. In Madras, the Black Town was developed outside the Fort.

A Black Town generally resembled a traditional Indian town, with living quarters built around its own temple and bazaar. There were narrow lanes and distinct caste-specific neighborhoods.

3. How did prominent Indian merchants establish themselves in the colonial city?
Ans: The prominent Indian merchants and traders settled in colonial cities like Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras.

They served as agents or middlemen for the British and lived in traditionally built courtyard houses in the Black Town. They centered over large tracts of land in these cities and heavily made investments for the future.

They wanted to impress their British masters or colonial ruler or white people living in white towns by giving lavish parties during festival seasons and building temples to establish their supremacy and prestige in society.

NCERT Class 12 History Textbook Chapter 12 With Answer PDF Free Download

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