Citizenship NCERT Textbook With Solution PDF

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Citizenship NCERT Textbook With Solutions Book PDF Free Download

Citizenship

Chapter 6: Citizenship

Citizenship has been defined as full and equal members of a political community. In the contemporary world, states provide a collective political identity to their members as well as certain rights.

Therefore we think of ourselves as Indians, or Japanese, or Germans, depending on the state to which we belong.

Citizens expect certain rights from their state as well as help and protection wherever they may travel.

The importance of full membership in a state can be appreciated if we think of the condition of the thousands of people in the world who have the bad fortune to be forced to live as
refugees or illegal migrants because no state is willing to grant them membership.

Such people are not guaranteed rights by any state and generally live in precarious conditions.

For them, full membership in a state of their choice is a goal for which they are willing to struggle, as we see today with Palestinian refugees in the Middle East.

The precise nature of the rights granted to citizens may vary from state to state but in most democratic countries today they would include some political rights like the right
to vote, civil rights like the freedom of speech or belief, and some socio-economic rights which could include the right to a minimum wage, or the right to education.

Equality of rights and status is one of the basic rights of citizenship.

Each of the rights now enjoyed by citizens has been won after struggle. Some of the earliest
struggles were fought by people to assert their independence and rights against powerful
monarchies.

Many European countries experienced such struggles, some of them violent, like the French Revolution in 1789.

In the colonies of Asia and Africa, demands for equal citizenship formed part of their struggle for independence from colonial rulers.

In South Africa, the black African population had to undertake a long struggle against the ruling white minority for equal citizenship.

This continued until the early 1990s. Struggles to achieve full membership and equal rights continue even now in many parts of the world.

You may have read about the women’s movement and the Dalit movement in our country. Their purpose is to change public opinion by drawing attention to their needs as well as to influence government policy to ensure their equal rights and opportunities.

AuthorNCERT
Language English
No. of Pages18
PDF Size1.8 MB
CategoryPolitical Science
Source/Creditsncert.nic.in

NCERT Solutions Class 11 Political Science Chapter 6 Citizenship

Question 1.
Citizenship as full and equal membership of a political community involves both rights and obligations. Which rights could citizens expect to enjoy in most democratic state today? What kind of obligation will they have to their state and fellow citizens?
Answer:
Citizenship refers to full and equal members of a political community, i.e. a political identity to an individual by its state. A citizen in a democratic state can enjoy the following rights:

  • A support and protection from state to travel anywhere in the state.
  • Some political rights to vote, to contest elections, to hold public offices, etc.
  • Civil rights like freedom of speech and expression.
  • Social-economic rights, i.e. equal opportunities, right to education, right to minimum wage, etc.
  • Along with the exercise of certain rights the citizens are supposed to fulfill some obligations

also towards the state and its fellow citizens as:

  • Citizenship involves some obligations towards the state and its fellow citizens.
  • These obligations are the outcomes of considerations to be inheritors and trustees of the culture and natural resources of the country.
  • These obligations do not include only the legal obligations provided by the state but these expect some moral obligations to participate, contribute, and to share the life of the community, etc.

Question 2.
All citizens may be granted equal rights but all may not be able to equally exercise them. Explain.
Answer:

  • The full and equal membership refers to all citizens either rich or poor should being granted certain basic rights along with a minimum standard of living by the state. But all of them may not be able to exercise them equally due to poverty, illiteracy or social -economic conditions, etc.
  • As the problem of a large population of slum-dwellers and squatters in urban areas, though they may do some necessary and useful work at low wage they may be balanced for straining the resources of the area or to expand crime and diseases.
  • The authorities in cities hardly spend any amount on slum dwellers for their betterment. Though some NGOs are taking initiatives for them, i.e. a national policy was also framed in January 2004 on urban street vendors.
  • The slum dwellers are also becoming aware of their rights but still, they are not able to exercise even their basic political rights, i.e. right to vote because it requires a permanent address which is not possible for them to provide.
  • The other groups are the tribal people and forest-dwellers because these people are dependent on access to their natural resources and they face a threat to their livelihood.
  • Governments are struggling with the problem of how to protest the problems of tribal people and their habitat without hampering the development of country.
  • To ensure equal rights and unities for all citizens cannot be a simple matter for any government. If the purpose is not just to make policies to apply, in the same way but to make people more equal, the different needs and claims of people would have to be taken into account when framing policies.

NCERT Class 11 Political Science Textbook Chapter 6 Citizenship With Answer PDF Free Download

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