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Chapter 11: Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
You have learned that the substitution of one or more hydrogen atom(s) from a hydrocarbon by another atom or a group of atoms results in the formation of an entirely new compound having altogether different properties and applications. Alcohols and phenols are formed when a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon, aliphatic and aromatic respectively, is replaced by the –OH group.
These classes of compounds find wide applications in industry as well as in day-to-day life. For instance, have you ever noticed that ordinary spirit used for polishing the wooden furniture is chiefly a compound containing hydroxyl group, ethanol?
The sugar we eat, the cotton used for fabrics, and the paper we use for writing, are all made up of compounds containing –OH groups. Just think of life without paper; no notebooks, books, newspapers, currency notes, cheques, certificates, etc.
The magazines carrying beautiful photographs and interesting stories would disappear from our life. It would have been really a different world.
Alcohol contains one or more hydroxyl (OH) group(s) directly attached to a carbon atom(s), of an
aliphatic system (CH3OH) while a phenol contains – OH group(s) directly attached to a carbon atom(s) of an aromatic system (C6H5OH).
The substitution of a hydrogen atom in a hydrocarbon by an alkoxy or aryloxy group (R–O/Ar–O) yields another class of compounds known as ‘ethers’, for example, CH3OCH3 (dimethyl ether).
You may also visualize ethers as compounds formed by substituting the hydrogen atom of the hydroxyl group of alcohol or phenol with an alkyl or aryl group. In this unit, we shall discuss the chemistry of three classes of compounds, namely — alcohols, phenols, and ethers.
Preparation of Alcohols
Alcohols are prepared by the following methods:
- From alkenes
(i) By acid catalyzed hydration: Alkenes react with water in the presence of acid as a catalyst to form alcohols. In the case of unsymmetrical alkenes, the addition reaction takes place in accordance with Markovnikov’s rule (Unit 13, Class XI).
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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 11 Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
Q 11.1 :
Write IUPAC names of the following compounds:
(i) 2, 2, 4 -Trimethylpentan – 3 – ol
(ii) 5 – Ethylheptane – 2, 4 – diol
(iii) Butane – 2, 3 – diol
(iv) Propane – 1, 2, 3 – triol
(vi) 4 – Methyl phenol
(vii) 2, 5 – Dimethylphenol
(viii) 2, 6 – Dimethylphenol
(ix) 1 – Methoxy – 2 – methyl propane
(x) Ethoxy benzene
(xi) 1 – Phenoxyheptane
(xii) 2 – Ethoxybutane
Q 11.2 :
Write structures of the compounds whose IUPAC names are as follows:
(i) 2 – Methylbutan – 2 – ol
(ii) 1 – Phenylpropan – 2 – ol
(iii) 3 , 5 – Dimethylhexane – 1 , 3 , 5 – triol
(iv) 2, 3 – Diethylphenol
(v) 1 – Ethoxypropane
(vi) 2 – Ethoxy – 3 – methylpentane
(viii) 3 – Cyclohexylpentan – 3 – ol
(ix) Cyclopent – 3 – en – 1 – ol
Alcohols Phenols And Ethers NCERT With Solution PDF Free Download